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In The Academicians of the Royal Academy —71 , Zoffany depicts a vaunted studio with some plus male artists who consort with two nude male models, chat with each other, and admire the artworks on view.

Almost unnoticed are two portraits that hang above them and depict the artists Angelica Kauffman and Mary Moser, whose images appear as avatars, as though these painters were unworthy of joining a room bursting at its seams with men.

And this was not the only one she was forced to weather over the course of her career, which lasted for almost half a century.

She was often plagued with allegations that she had romantic liaisons with famous male artists—Nathaniel Hone once satirized her close friendship with artist Joshua Reynolds, portraying Kauffman as his plaything; the painting was rejected by the Royal Academy amid an outcry.

Nevertheless, Kauffman maintained a powerful social network that included theorist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and sculptor Antonio Canova who later oversaw aspects of her funeral in , and she saw unusual market success for a female artist of her era.

During her day, Kauffman, who was born in Chur, Switzerland, in and was based in London and Rome for much of her life, was considered a key artist of the Neoclassicism movement, which revived Greco-Roman artistic tropes as part of an Enlightenment-era push for rationality and reason during the 18th century.

In fact, she even became so popular that her studio became a stop on the Grand Tour, a trip through Europe that was considered an educational rite of passage for upper-class men.

Yet, in the centuries since, Kauffman has generally received less attention than her male Neoclassical colleagues such as Reynolds, Canova, and Jacques-Louis David.

More recently, however, that has started to change, as interest in the artist is growing once again. It was due to travel to London in June, but that is no longer the case, due to the coronavirus.

In this portrait, which scholars initially thought was meant to represent Kauffman herself, she depicts a woman whose identity remains unknown; because of her rolled-up paper and her sculpture of the goddess Minerva, who signifies wisdom, some have suggested she may have been an intellectual.

During the 18th century, history paintings—large-scale canvases depicting episodes from ancient times—were considered the highest art form, and Kauffman excelled in that mode, which was then considered to be one reserved largely for men.

In this one, Kauffman depicts the Greek painter Zeuxis getting ready to paint an image of Helen of Troy—without Helen sitting before him.

He goes about it by cherrypicking the most perfect features of five models and combining them to create an ideal female representation.

The painting, now exhibited in a library at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, has provoked debate among scholars: Was Kauffman merely conforming to the gender norms of her day using hazy sfumato brushwork to sensualize and objectify these women, or is a more subversive commentary about the male gaze at play here?

Here, Kauffman explores what constitutes a treasure. The daughter of a painter, she was educated in the arts, and she was seen early on as a musical prodigy prized for her soprano voice.

As Minerva won over the male god, the illustration acts as a subtle reminder that Kauffman believes in and supports the powers of women.

Indeed, the unknown woman that Kauffman paints here holds a book and a writing implement, and these attributes have led viewers to believe that the sitter was in fact a female intellectual of the time, possibly the historian Catherine Macaulay, or the writer Elizabeth Montagu.

The sitter appears confident, empowered and yet also graceful, very much like a Roman goddess. This portrait therefore also endorses the style of Neoclassicism and at the same time showcases female decorum and celebrates the wealth of artistic skill of women.

On the left-hand side of the portrait, there is a table with carved and decorative lion's feet. This type of furniture is indicative of the popular style seen widely across all of the arts in European throughout the eighteenth century.

The same style was endorsed by the famous architect, Robert Adam within building design, as well as by Josiah Wedgwood through pottery.

There was a revival and a contemporary fascination for all things Roman or Greek. Artists including Kauffman explored these curiosities further when they embarked on European Grand Tours.

Both Kauffman and the unknown intellectual woman in the portrait are presented here as equals to their male counter parts, also travellers, also curious, and also artists.

Kauffman not only emphasised human emotion and added a sense of theatre to her portraits, but she also played with and altered size and scale.

Here, she paints a child of about eleven years old, neither miniature nor full-length but somewhere in between. The play of light, treatment of the fabric and the wispy landscape in the background also recall the portraits of Reynold's great rival, Thomas Gainsborough.

Gainsborough too painted many well-to-do young women amusing themselves outside. Indeed, this portrait of Henrietta had been described as an "indefatigable dancer" and Kauffman accordingly paints her in this very graceful pose giving the dress's fabric and sash a life of their own, almost leaping off the canvas.

Art historian Ian Dejardin describes the evident sense of freedom in this work as being illustrative of an important shift in thinking towards children during this period.

Two of the most influential thinkers at the time, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau advocated the benefits of open-air education and the need to respect childhood, seeing it as a distinct life phase in need of its own guidelines.

Henrietta Pulteney was raised by parents who followed this new and free philosophy and as such allowed their daughter to ramble through the woods and learn through play.

Kauffman likely feels that she shares much in common with Henrietta, for she too enjoyed a good education without restriction, supported by forward-thinking parents.

Made in the style of an epic history painting, this tableau tells the story of Zeuxis, who, in order to portray the world's most beautiful woman - Helen of Troy - is combining the best features of five other models.

The artist, Zeuxis, is in the act of anatomical study, inspecting one of the models as three others prepare for the master's gaze.

It is with the fifth 'model', however, who interestingly has Kauffman's features, where the real interest of this painting lies.

The fifth model, on the far right of the painting, defies the patriarchal conventions of representation bound up within this narrative, steps behind the male artist, picks up his brush, and is about to start painting.

Henceforth, the Neoclassicists used this image to illustrate the superiority of art over nature. Overall, the painting is an affirmation of Kauffman's artistic beliefs, as well as a manifesto painting in terms of her own views on the talents and capabilities of women as artists.

A few years later, in , Kauffman painted herself face to face with a helmeted goddess that is likely Mineva the Roman version of the Greek Athene , patron of the arts.

In both this painting and in Zeuxis Selecting Models for His Painting of Helen of Troy , Kauffman not only confirms her allegiance to Neoclassicism, but also associates herself with a classical female ancestor and as such inserts herself into the revealing lineage of time.

Design is one of four paintings the others being Invention, Composition , and Color commissioned of Kauffman for the Council Room ceiling of Somerset House, the Royal Academy's first purpose-built home.

American history painter Benjamin West was also involved in painting for the scheme and he created his own version of The Four Elements , typical and lifeless nude figures accompanied by their attributes.

Whilst Kauffman's four circular ceiling panels are also allegories, in the sense that each person represents an idea, they are not as impersonal as the renditions by West.

Kauffman instead shows women in action, working on their art. In Design and Color the figures are physically engaged in the act of creation whereas in Composition and Invention the figures are engaged in reflection.

In Invention the figure looks to the sky for inspiration and in Composition she is deep in thought with her head in her hands.

When displayed together, the paintings are thus paired-up, with one practical and one theoretical at each side of the room. It was forbidden for a female artist to work from the male nude, which is why in Design , Kauffman is forced to look to a classical bust to learn about male anatomy.

Even doing this was very unusual and frowned upon in its day. Overall as a series, Kauffman's four paintings were inspired in part and represent her friend, Joshua Reynold's theories in his Discourses on Art , on which he had given lectures at the Royal Academy and published later in Despite Kauffman's artistic credentials, classical training, and her innovation in history painting the Royal Academy did not give this set of four paintings pride of place.

Visitors would not have easily seen the significance of Kauffman's works including Design as they graced the ceiling rather than the walls of the building.

Now, unfortunately, the panels on the ceiling are not Kauffman's original paintings but rather photographic reproductions, whilst the original panels have been re-hung in the entrance to Burlington House, another part of the Royal Academy of Arts in London, and do not get noticed much due to the nature of large crowds entering the building this way.

Kauffman returned to Rome in In , she received a papal commission from Cardinal Ignazio Buoncompagni for an altar painting. She greatly enjoyed the commission and as such during the latter part of her career there was a stronger emphasis on religion than in earlier works.

Nonetheless, this study, a preliminary drawing of a mother, one of the figures for Kauffman's painting Let the Little Children Come unto Me shows that she retained focus on the Neoclassical style.

Kauffmann took inspiration for this painting from Matthew in which Christ blesses the children that are brought to him.

In her preparatory drawing, Kauffman captures the great detail of the mother's heavy drapery. White chalk is used in contrast to the stone colored paper, adding softness to the darker contours of the woman.

In the final painting, the mother has an infant in her left arm and with her right hand she holds the hand of another child figures that have not yet appeared in this drawing.

By contrast to her subject, Kauffman did not become a mother and instead devoted her life and affections to art. This vibrant and revealing self-portrait was painted as a commission for Princess Holstein-Beck of Russia after Kauffman had returned to Rome.

The picture clearly shows the two different career choices that were open to Kauffman during her innocent youth - painting on the one hand and music on the other.

Contemporary opinion of female singers was often however linked to promiscuity, as some became mistresses at the royal courts that they performed in.

Indeed, Kauffman had asked a priest for advice in her youth as to which vocation to pursue and he - for this reason and also because he thought that art was ultimately more satisfying - pointed her towards painting.

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